I know this topic has probably been covered a lot on here, and I've done some searching and reading of threads which has told me mostly what I already know.
My pup is 11 weeks old and will be mostly an inside dog. I started by trying to teach him to go in a litter box, but it became apparent pretty quickly that he didn't like using it and I established that it was perhaps a bit small, so I ditched the litter box and have a larger area of paper for him to go. Unless he is shut in the room with the paper he won't go to it to do his business, he just stops where he is and pees/poos. I figured perhaps his paper toilet area is too far away when he's out in the house with us, so I have been taking him outside during the day.
I am clicker training him, so I have been using the clicker to reward him when he goes outside and give him a treat and a pat, though I find if I touch him or get too excited while he's going he gets distracted and stops. So I'm using the clicker while he's going and feed him a treat and then give him pats after he's done. I take him out after every nap, after he's had a drink(unless he's just peed) or eaten, but he still goes inside several times a day, a lot of the time I don't see him do it, he'll be behind the coffee table or behind the couch(not in hidden spots, just where I happen to not be able to see him from where I am), or do a little pee on the way over to the water bowl so I think he's just going for a drink. I'm usually pretty observant and the slightest hint that I think he needs to go I'll take him outside, but if he doesn't go after 10-15mins, I'll let him back inside thinking he might've just smelt the ground because it smelt interesting.. then a few minutes later he'll pee somewhere >_< I've tried taking him out on a lead so I can stop him going on the path to pee(he only does this sometimes, and I usually just let him wander and find his own spot), but he usually just becomes obsessed with getting to the concrete simply because he's discovered that he can't, and then starts whining and just isn't interested in going to the toilet.
What I'm wondering is, is there a way to encourage him to let me know when he wants to go? He doesn't whine or go to the door or anything, he just wanders around and goes where ever. I encourage him to stay on his bed at my feet when I'm in the living area, he has toys to play with on his bed. Every time he wanders off his bed I watch him and encourage him to come back to his bed. Sometimes he's just going to get a drink, other times it's because my cat is around and he wants to play or go and sniff him. I find it difficult to tell when he's going to pee though, he doesn't really sniff around too much or do circles, a lot of the time he might sniff the ground once and then goes straight away or stops mid-walk and pees, so I don't get enough warning to scoop him up and go outside. If he needs to poop it's a lot easier to tell because he'll sniff around a lot more, do circles and quite often his back arches a little while he's sniffing around deciding where to go and I can recognise this body language and quickly run over and grab him.. quite often I grab him in the process and get him outside before it drops, lol.
When I'm home I manage to minimise his accidents inside to about 2 per day. But I don't think my partner is as vigilant as me, he's more happy to just let him wander around while he's sitting on his computer and just cleans up the accidents later when he finds them. We both ignore the puppy when he goes inside and clean it up, and my partner does take him outside sometimes, but I get the impression it's not as often as I do, and he probably gives up more easily if he doesn't go when he takes him outside.
I crate him at night and he's been really good for the last week or so, I take him out to pee before I go to bed, and usually only need to get up at about 5-6am to take him in the morning, except I usually take him to his paper area when I have to get up at night, rather than going outside. Last night I had to get up in the middle of the night to take him to pee, I don't know what time it was, but it was dark. Then when I got him out of his crate this morning, his belly was wet and his bedding was wet, but neither him nor his bedding smelt like urine.. so I don't know what happened. Sometimes he chews on his bedding, but I wouldn't think this would cause it to be wet. I do have a hot water bottle in his crate under his bedding, but it wasn't leaking as far as I could tell. Should I wash his bedding just to be safe? Although, he has just puked on my lap. Could he have done a saliva puke during the night? I gave him a raw chicken wing yesterday and he crunched up the bones and ate most of it.. I was thinking perhaps this might be why he was puking, but upon inspection, it appears to be mostly hair(mine) and small bits of sugar cane mulch. He chews on the sugar cane mulch a little bit when he's running around the garden, but the bits are only tiny and I doubt that's why he puked, I'm thinking it's more due to the hair. My cat has issues with my hair as well (I molt like crazy).
But at any rate, I don't feel like he's connecting outside or paper with the appropriate place to go to the toilet, and he's certainly not making any effort to get there or let us know when he needs to go (he whines when he's in his crate but not otherwise). I know he's still young, but at what age should I expect to see good progress with toilet training, at this stage I feel like we're getting nowhere.